Bitumen modification is the process of adjusting bitumen properties by mixing it with polymer additives or using modern production techniques.
To achieve good properties of this construction material, increase its temperature and deformation resistance, the dispersion phase must be influenced. Three approaches currently exist:
- Compounding of peroxidized bitumen containing large amounts of asphaltene with deasphaltation asphalt, tower bottoms or selective oil purification extract. Oil products with...
Asphalt Emulsion Properties. Asphalt emulsion, like any other material, has a certain range of properties, which define the requirements to its production, storage and use.
Viscosity. Viscosity is a very important performance parameter. If viscosity is low, the emulsion is not thick enough, while excessively high viscosity means the emulsion will stay on the surface without permeation of the underlying materials.
Viscosity is influenced by the...
To make asphalt emulsion on industrial scale, special equipment is required.
A standard emulsion plant is composed of the following:
- a homogenizer colloid mill, a component designed for dispersion;
- heated insulated bitumen storage tanks;
- emulsifier, thinner and finished product tanks;
- control system;
- a heating system (steam or oil).
Colloid mills of varying design are used in asphalt emulsion plants. The resulting...
One of the possible uses of bitumen emulsions is reinforcement of fine sand in the top layer of earth roadbed, as well as running sands of border strips in road construction. Such measures are especially important in desert areas.
The process can be performed with regular emulsion, but before application ot should be diluted with water or emulsifier solution. The consumption of emulsion is 1 to 1.5...
The production process of bitumen emulsions is inextricably connected with bitumen emulsification. Currently there are several approaches to the production of this material: mechanical, acoustic, chemical and aeration.
Mechanical method means grinding of initial bitumen by compression, impact, stretching, friction and other external forces. With the acoustic method the properties of ultrasonic waves are used for bitumen milling. Chemical method causes bitumen breaking by the reaction between...
Bitumen emulsion is a dark brown water-bitumen mix. It is produced by bitumen dispersion in water with various emulsifiers.
Anionic bitumen emulsions interact with various minerals in different ways. This defines its area of application. Road construction tasks are much better solved by cationic bitumen emulsions.
Application of bitumen emulsions has a range of advantages compared to hot mix:
- reduction of bitumen consumption;
Currently, there are over a hundred brands of polymer bitumen materials available in the market. There is no need to analyze them based on the product name, since any producer comes up with a new name, although the structure, composition and properties of these materials are near identical.
In general, a polymer bitumen material includes a base covered with polymer bitumen binders and protective layers on both...
Bitumen felt is a roofing material produced by saturating cardboard with liquid bitumen. With this material a dressing compound for the front surface is not required.
Bitumen felt is produced in 1000, 1025 and 1050 mm rolls. The total area of one roll can reach 40 m2.
This roofing material has the following specifications:
- 20% max absorption of water by weight;
- 220… 320 N...
To separate the terms “modified bitumen” and “modified concrete”, one needs to understand what these materials are, their use and methods to adjust their properties.
Scientists refer to modified concrete as the concrete of the millenium. Additives can control the process of material formation and create highly functional construction materials. Modified concrete has higher density, better cold-endurance and water resistance.
Application of additives helps to improve...
Bitumen emulsions are produced by special continuous or batch units, usually based on a colloid mill.
First, the solution of emulsifier and bitumen passes through a mill, where emulsifying occurs. Production of cationic bitumen emulsions require a soap solution. It contains water, acid and emulsifier mixed together in ratio ensuring the proper acidity. A special solvent is often added to bitumen emulsions, usually kerosene, diesel or white...
Today bitumen is a very popular construction material used in production of asphalt, paints and lacquers, waterproofing works, etc.
During construction, bitumen is pumped via pipes or raised to surface by special pumps. The properties of the material pose certain requirements which should be considered when choosing the right pump.
In particular, pumping rate must be limited to 25% of maximum catalogue value. Also, provisions should be made...
Asphalt concrete is a mineral bituminous construction material produced by compacting of asphalt concrete mix. The latter usually consists of gravel, sand, mineral powder and oil bitumen heated to 120-160ºС and mixed in the proper ratios.
The percentage of components of asphalt concrete mix:
- 20-65% gravel;
- 30-66% sand;
- 4-14% mineral powder;
- 5-7% bitumen.
Asphalt concrete differs from other bituminous-mineral materials, with higher density, strength...
A colloid mill is a piece of equipment designed for grinding of substances to colloidally sized particles. Liquid medium is required for high quality.
The first colloid mill example was constructed by K. Plausson in 1920. Since then, the milling machine has been much developed, and is actively used in pharmaceutical, chemical and food industries nowadays. The tremendous advantage of a colloid mill is its ability to...
Bitumen emulsion is a disperse system in which bitumen is distributed in water phase in the form of small droplets. The percentage of bitumen in the emulsion depends on its future use, but is usually at 30-70%. Today, bitumen emulsion is very popular when performing tasks such as:
- Surface treatment;
- Filling of cracks;
- Binding of dust;
- Reinforcing soil;
- Production of cold mixes;
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The field of bitumen application is quite wide. It varies from road construction and waterproofing to production of corrosion-resistant coat. Bitumen also used in production of felt cardboard, which is designed for waterproofing and roofing of buildings of various purposes.
The production technology of the material is standard and has only some slight variations in specific cases. It can be described using the example of ruberoid production....
Bitumen is a material which requires special storage and transportation. To keep the bitumen in good condition, it must constantly be heated in its container. Bitumen is a binder and must remain so, without becoming solid or separating into water and bitumen in case of water-bitumen emulsions.
There are two types of bitumen storage tanks: horizontal and vertical. Vertical tanks are more popular, being easier to use,...
Bitumen emulsion is a dark brown finely dispersed liquid material, produced by special plants from bitumen by milling it with water and a surfactant emulsifier.
Water-bitumen emulsion is made by special devices, with different emulsification methods and product quality. The mill originates from simple grain mills, which evolved from millstones and windmills into mixers and grinders and then into high capacity dispersing and homogenizing devices.
Performance of construction bitumens can be improved by upgrading the production technology or by introduction of special modifying additives. The first approach is necessary, but not sufficient to ensure that quality meets proper requirements.
One of the most important bitumen parameters is its operational range. This parameter can be characterized by interval of the so called plastic state, i.e. the difference between melting and brittleness points. In...
Regular building materials offered satisfactory quality of road surfaces for many years. But the situation changed dramatically after a considerable growth of traffic intensity and traffic load. Bitumen ceased to ensuring proper road reliability and long service life.
The following issues became problematic:
- aging tendency;
- high thermal sensitivity;
- ow elasticity and poor mechanical properties.
All the problems above compelled scientists to...
Bitumen has been known as a protective and binding material for the last 5000 years. The first records are come from Entre Rios, Iran and northwestern India. Egyptians used bitumen in construction and for protection from moisture.
It is still not exactly clear why it took so long to go from from extensive bitumen usage in the Ancient times to worldwide use. Even the Romans did not...